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What Are The Properties And Uses Of Abrasives?


Definition of abrasive
Abrasives are natural or man-made materials with particle shape and grinding ability, materials that play a role in grinding, grinding and polishing.

With the development of science and technology, abrasives have become the most important materials used in manufacturing, national defense industry, and modern high-tech industries. Abrasives can be made into different shapes and types of grinding tools and grinding wheels, and abrasives can also be used directly to grind and polish workpieces.

Classification of abrasives
Abrasives are divided into two categories: superabrasives and ordinary abrasives. In these two categories, they are divided into natural abrasives and artificial abrasives. Artificial abrasives are commonly used in modern industry. Standards and codes are also included in national standards.

Abrasive properties
Abrasives are the main raw materials of abrasive tools and can be directly used for grinding and polishing. In order to meet the needs of various workpiece materials, abrasives should have the following basic properties: hardness, toughness, strength, thermal stability, and chemical stability.

Hardness is the basic performance of abrasives, the comparison is as follows:

Brown fused alumina 19600-21600MPa
Zirconium corundum 14700MPa
Chrome corundum 21600-22600MPa
Green silicon carbide 31000-34000MPa
Boron carbide 40000-45000MPa
Cubic boron carbide 73000-100000MPa
Synthetic diamond 86000-106000MPa

The hardness of the abrasive is related to the chemical composition of the abrasive, the integrity of the crystal structure, and the magazines fused in the crystal, so each type of abrasive has a specific purpose.

The toughness of the abrasive is the ability of the abrasive to resist fracture. Appropriate toughness can ensure the cutting effect of the abrasive micro-blade, and the fractured section will generate new cutting micro-blades to continue to maintain the wind state. For example, the high titanium content of brown corundum will reduce the toughness of corundum. Round granular abrasive grains have higher toughness than flaky and needle-shaped abrasive grains.

The strength of the abrasive is to ensure that it will not be affected by the repeated grinding force during the grinding process, and the cutting ability can only be exerted with a certain strength.

Thermal stability is also very important. During the grinding process, the mold will generate a high temperature of 400-1000°C. Insufficient thermal stability will cause adhesion or passivation, and the grinding tool will be blocked.